Citizen science is scientific research that is partly or entirely carried out by ordinary people. Citizen science involves the public in scientific research. It has been utilized especially in natural and technical sciences. Practical examples of research conducted by citizens are birdwatching and participating in archaeological digs.
Citizen science is also about societal interaction at various stages of research.
Universities Act (2009/558) promotes social debate as follows: "In carrying out their mission, the universities shall promote lifelong learning, interact with the surrounding society and promote the social impact of university research findings and artistic activities".
Universities of Applied Sciences Act (2014/932) also reminds about cooperating with operating environment: "...each university of applied sciences shall cooperate with business and industry and other sectors of the labour market, in particular within its own region...".
Citizen science advances open science. In Finland, open science is coordinated by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies with funding from the Ministry of Education and Culture. Open science is promoted in expert panels and their associated working groups. The Working Group on Citizen Science explores the interface between open research and society through citizen science.
The Tampere University Community Policy on Open Science and Research (pdf) highlights citizen science as:
"The openness of science also entails the work of researchers as experts and social commentators, as well as the involvement of non-academic people in research processes (in the form of “citizen science”)."
The European Citizen Science Association has developed the principles of citizen science:
ECSA (European Citizen Science Association). 2015. Ten Principles of Citizen Science. Berlin. http://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/XPR2N