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Alternative Access: Databases & publishing

Publishing process and different versions of articles

During the publishing process several versions of an article are formed.Publishing process

  • The submitted version of an article is the author's version that has not been peer-reviewed.
  • The author's own final version is the version that has been peer-reviewed and possibly edited according to the reviewer's comments, but has not been finalized and edited by the publisher.
  • The article's final version is the publisher's edited version that has been published in the journal.

You can find all these different versions of articles in different repositories, databases or archives.

The following table contains the various names of article versions that publishers use at different stages of the publication process.

Figure: Public Domain

  Manuscript submitted to journal Author's final version of an article

Article published in a journal

Terms Pre-print, submitted version, author-submitted article Post-print, final draft, accepted author manuscript, accepted article, author's accepted manuscript

Final published article, final published version, version of record, definitive version, publisher PDF, publisher's version, ahead of print, in press, corrected proof, online first, epub,  forthcoming article.

Definition Not peer reviewed, author's first article manuscript version sent to a journal The author's final version of an article that has been modified according to the feedback of the peer review, does not have the layout or logos of the publisher Final version of the article that has layout, pagination, logo etc. finalized by the publisher


Open Access repositories can be either institutional e.g Trepo or subject-based e.g. arXiv, RePec. Institutional repositories provide access to institutional research output and articles produced by the members of an institution or an university. Subject-based repositores focus on articles and other research outputs published in a specific discipline. You can find more repositories from these services:


  • BASE - Multidisciplinary repository
  • CORE - Multidisciplinary repository
  • OpenAIRE - Multidisciplinary repository
  • PubMed Central - Repository for biomedical and life sciences
  • Zenodo - Multidisciplinary repository, includes also research data.

What are preprint repositories

Preprint repositories contain scientific articles that haven't been peer reviewed yet. The repositories can be either subject based or multidisciplinary. They may also contain other additional material such as data associated with an article.

Many publishers and funders have also launched their own preprint repositories (e.g. F1000 ResearchGates Open Research, Lancet, MDPI,  Peer J, Springer Natue, Wellcome  and Wiley).

  • Julkari is the open repository for the publications of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health's administrative branch organisations
  • Jukuri is the open repository of the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
  • Valto is the open repository of Finnish Government 
  • VATT is the open repository of Institute for Economic Research
  • VTT is the institutional repository repository for Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • Väylävirasto is the institutional repository for Finnish Transport Infractructure Agency.

Open Access books and journals

  • B.C Open Textbook Collection contains textbooks from several different subject.
  • Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB)  is the most extensive critical directory of scientific Open Access books.
  • contains Finnish Monographs and Edited Volumes Online
  • Intech Open Access Books contains openly accessible monographs, mainly in the field of physical sciences, engineering and technology, life sciences, health sciences, social sciences and humanities.
  • JSTORE Open Access ebooks from 90 publishers, including Brill, Cornell University Press, De Gruyter, and University of California Press. Contains openly accessible academic monographs, mainly in the field of humanities and social sciences.
  • Milne Open Textbooks contains textbooks from several different subject.
  • MuseProjekt includes books and journals in the humanities and social sciences from university presses and scholarly societies.
  • NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Open Access books and documents in life science and healthcare.
  • Oapen offers an extensive, critical directory of Open Access monographs. The list of Top subjects provides useful information on subjects and contact information of various publishers.
  • OpenEdition is a French portal in the fields of humanities and social sciences.
  • Open Humanities Press includes Open Access books and journals.
  • Open Textbook Library contains textbooks from several different subject.
  • Physics World Discovery (IOPscience) includes books in physics.


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